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المنقي  - Enthärter  -  Adoucisseur - - سختیگیر تبادل یونی

How will be softened hard water?  

Hard water is softened by removing the calcium (Ca+2) and magnesium (Mg+2). When hard water passes through the resin bed in softening system. The hard ions (Ca+2, Mg+2) in the water exchanges for soft ones (Na+), so will be softened water. Once the resin bed fills up with hardness ions, it must be regenerated. Salt is typically used in the regeneration process. After regeneration can be used again.

The chemical reaction between hardness and resin;

Ca+2   + 2 R-Na+ ----->     R2-Ca + 2 Na+           Service

Mg+2   + 2 R-Na+ ----->     R2-Mg + 2 Na+           Service

R2-Ca + 2 Na+     -----> 2 R -Na + 2 Ca+2          Regeneration (NaCl)

R2-Mg + 2 Na+     -----> 2 R -Na + 2 Mg+2          Regeneration (NaCl)

Hard water causes a higher risk of lime scale deposits in water systems. Due to this lime scale build-up, pipes are blocked and the efficiency of hot boilers and tanks is reduced. This increases the cost of domestic water heating by about fifteen to twenty percent.  Another negative effect of lime scale is that it has damaging effects on household machinery, such as laundry machines.

The produced high quality softened water is ideal for;

• Boiler Feed,

• Textile Dyeing,

• Cooling Towers and,

• All other applications requiring low or zero hardness water. 

The ion exchange system can be classified according to the flow direction;

• Co-current system (Down flow service, Down flow regeneration)

• Countercurrent system (Down flow service, Up flow regeneration )

• Fluidized bed system (Up flow service down flow regeneration)


enki design softener according to custom requirement and specific application.